商务英语的词法、句法、结构及行文规范等层面分析、归纳 商务英语的几个显著的文体风格，并就商务信函的 写作谈若干细节问题。 社会语言学派在归纳语体的成因时，把题材内容列为重要的决定因素之一。是否存在一种特殊的 商务英语语体，学术界尚有争议。但有一点是很清楚的，那就是作为商务活动中使用的语言， 商务英语有一套遣词、用句和行文规范上的特点。
On thestudy of thecharacteristic of business English anditsE CtranslationSKills Although we are keen to meet your requirement,we regret that we are unable to comply with your request to reduce the prices as our prices are closely calculated.Even if there is difference between our process and those of other suppliers,you will find it profitable to buy from us because the quality of our products is far better than any other foreign makes in your district.
本文从商务英语的词法、句法、结构及行文规范等层面分析、归纳 商务英语的几个显著的文体风格，并就商务信函的 写作谈若干细节问题。 社会语言学派在归纳语体的成因时，把题材内容列为重要的决定因素之一。是否存在一种特殊的 商务英语语体，学术界尚有争议。
但有一点是很清楚的，那就是作为商务活动中使用的语言， 商务英语有一套遣词、用句和行文规范上的特点。现根据一些 商务英语教材、贸易谈判案例及笔者在学习、授课中的体会，谈谈外贸英语行文特点以及处理有关译写问题具体办法。
1. 准确性(accurate) 无论是贸易谈判抑或是书信往来，商务英语力求用词正确、内容清楚、说明具体、叙述完整。
1.1注意选词选用词义具体、明确的单词和短语，不卖弄辞藻，不矫饰情感，充分、客观、如实地表明意图，说明情况。比如要表达“我们会很快告知你方”这个意思时，说We shall let。
you know soon”就比“We shall advise you at an early date”显得语义清晰。再例如下句： We have recently received a number of complaints from our customers about your fountain pens.The pens are clearly not giving satisfaction,and in some cases,we have had to refund the purchase price.(最近我们收到顾客的投诉，反映你们钢笔质量问题，有些情况下我们不得不向你方要求退款。)通过使用complaints,not giving satisfaction和refund几个词，原句较为准确地陈述事实，亮明观点，表达意见，而且语气不愠不火，不卑不亢，是正常交涉贸易争端的分寸。如果换用claim(索赔)、inferior quality(质量低劣)、compensate(赔偿)等词，就显得用词帽大三分，虽气势汹汹，其实除了伤害感情，僵化局面，一点也无助于事情的解决。
1.2使用衔接语使用衔接语(logical connections)，使文章条理清楚，层次分明，思路连贯，增强语言的说服力。例如下段文字： Although we are keen to meet your
requirement,we regret that we are unable to comply with your request to reduce the prices as our prices are closely calculated.Even if there is difference between our process and those of other suppliers,you will find it profitable to buy from us because the quality of our products is far better than any other foreign makes in your district.(尽管我们热切地向满足你方的要求，然而，由于我们的价格已经精打细算，的确不能再予消减，即使别人的产品价格优惠一些，购买我们的产品仍然是有利可图的，因为在贵地区销售的外国产品中，我们的产品质量最为上乘。)
全段文字有两个层次：第一层次的主旨是拒绝减价，通过although和as引导的条件和原因状语从句，阐述了说话人主观上良好出发点与实际困难之间的矛盾，委婉而 礼貌地表达主旨。第二层次则是劝说对方购买自己的产品，even if和 because两个从句同样阐明了价高但质优这一事实，有效地打消了对方的顾虑。全段文章思维缜密，逻辑性强，令人感觉言之有理。
2.简洁(concise) 简洁是指 商务英语行文简明扼要。注意缩略迂回、晦涩的文句。删减虚浮、沉腐的字眼，开门见山，直奔主题。这样既便于一般的贸易从业人员理解，又能减轻文案人员的负担。近年来，随着电报、电话、电传、电子数据交换(EDI)的广泛使用以及国际互联网(internet)上电子邮件(email)引入贸易活动，人们进一步要求作为信息载体的语言要方便、实用。一方面能快捷地传递信息，另一方面相应降低通讯费用。所以当今的 商务英语越来越呈现处一种口语化(colloquial)和非正式(informal)的倾向，其特征是：
2.1直接切入主题商务信函等径直切入主题，直截了当。这种文风可以从舒心的起首句看得很明显。例如： Our company is one of the largest traders in the above products.(我公司使上述产品的最大经销商之一。)该起首语介绍公司经营的产品，
(1)We express our regret at being unable to fulfill your order on thisoccasion with our customary promptness. (由于我们不能按惯例迅速地执行你方的订单，我们特此致歉。)
(2)We are sorry we cannot meet your present order immediately.(很抱歉，我们无法立即执行你们现在的订单。)
(1)We wish to place with you a repeat order for 1000 metric ton of walnut meat. In case the said goods are not available form stock„„(我们想向你方续订1000公吨核桃仁。如果上述货物缺货的话„„)文中的the said goods换称1000 metric ton of walnut meat。
(2)We have examined your proposal to place order for a guaranteed minimum number of bicycles in turn for a special allowance,but after considering if carefully„„(我们已获悉你方以保证订购最低限额的自行车来换取我方特别优惠的建议，经慎重考虑„„)，it替代上文中的proposal to place order for a guaranteed minimum number of bicycles in turn for a special allowance. (3)With reference to the 4,000 doz.
shirts under our sales confirmation no. c215,V wish to draw ur attention to the fact that the shipment must be made before 16 Jan.(关于我方第c215号销售确认书项下的4000打衬衫，我们提醒你方注意，必须在一月十六日前发货。)文中的doz.,V,ur 分别是dozen,we,your的缩略形式。
3. 礼貌(polite) 尽管我们强调 商务英语文字简洁，这并不意味着外贸书信就不再存在什么问候与寒暄、客套与恭维。相反，现代外贸书信要求字里行间流露出热情、周到和善解人意。
要体谅对方，从对方出发。即使拒绝对方的要求，批驳对方的观点，也要注意语气委婉，尽量用客观、肯定和积极的态度去谈论问题。既要维护自身利益，也要顾及对方面子，切不可一言不慎，伤害双方的合作关系。例如： It is something like ABC to a businessman that price fluctuates at different time,we,therefore,cannot accept your request forreduction of price.(不同时间，不同价格，这是商人的起码知识，我们不能接受你降价的请求。)这段文字，态度生硬，拒人于千里之外。要想以理服人，有必要将其修改如下：
Aseverybody knows,in international trade,price naturally fluctuates at different time.Under the presentcircumstances we can not accept your request for reduction of price.(在国际贸易中，时间不同，价格自然有所变化，这使人所皆知的。在目前情况下，我们不能接受你们降价的请求。)
4.小结其实，除了前面所述 准确、简洁和 礼貌的特点之外， 商务英语在行文中还体现诸如完整性(complete)、具体性
Impacts of Cultural Differences on International Business Negotiation
With the economic globalization and the frequent business contacts, cultural differences seem to be very important; otherwise they could cause unnecessary misunderstanding, even affect the result of the business negotiations. This means it is very important to know the different culture in different countries and the ways to avoid the culture conflicts in the international business negotiations.
The article commences from the types of culture differences, then it explains the impacts of these culture differences on international business negotiation and finally it analyzes how to deal with the problem of the cultural differences correctly in negotiation process.
Key words: Culture; Cultural differences; Business negotiation; Impact.
1. Types of Culture Differences
Value view is the standard that people use to asses objective things. It includes time view, equality view and objectivity. People may draw a different or even contradictory conclusion about the same thing. Value view is one of the most important differences among the many factors.
1.2. Negotiating Style
Negotiating style refers to the tolerance and graces which the negotiator shows in the negotiation. The negotiators show their negotiating style through behavior, manners and the method of controlling negotiation process during the negotiation.
1.3. Thinking Model
Thinking model reflects the culture. Because of the influences of history background, continents, words and living method, different nations generate different thinking models. Surely, there is more than one thinking model of a nation, but one is more obvious compared with others.
2. Impact of Cultural Differences on International Business
With the rapid development of economy, we need to do business with businessmen under different culture background, so in order to reach trade agreement, it is necessary for us to study the impact of culture differences on international
negotiation in global business activities. The impact of culture differences on international negotiation is extensive and deeply. Different cultures divide the people into different group and they are also the obstacles of people’s communication.
Accordingly, it is required that the negotiator should accept the culture of each other. Furthermore, through culture differences, it is important that the negotiator reveal and understand the other party’s goal and behavior and make him or herself be accepted by the opponent to reach agreement finally.
3. Coping Strategy of Negotiating across Cultures
3.1 Making Preparations before Negotiation.
The negotiators must make good preparations if they want control the development of negotiation successfully in the complex situation. When making preparations, you should try to know the opponents while you analyze yourselves. Analyzing yourselves mainly refers to studying if the project is feasible. To knowing about the opponents means understanding their strength such as credit status, the policy, business customs and so on.
3.2 Overcoming Cultural Prejudice
Tolerating different cultures and overcoming cultural prejudice contribute to better communicating with each other and understanding each other. We should learn about the foreign cultures before negotiation and accept and understand their cultures in negotiation, because every country regard their own cultures as a matter of course and hope that their culture could be recognized and accepted.
3.3 Conquering Communication Barriers
In negotiation, sometimes we can’t make much progress although we have talked for long time. And sometimes both parties are not satisfied. After thinking, that is caused by communication barriers which happen easily in cross-cultural negotiation.
We should make sure if there appear communication barriers, if so, we must overcome them. Generally speaking, we should pay more attention to the following three communication barriers in cross-cultural negotiation: the communication barriers caused by culture background of both; the ones caused by misunderstanding of the contents and information from the partner; the ones caused by not being willing to accept the opponent’s contents and ideas.
“Social Customs varies in different countries”. In a word, cross- cultural communication will meet the problem of culture differences surely. In turn, culture differences also influence all aspects of international business communication. To avoid or to resolve the culture differences is a huge task in international business negotiation. In order to step into the international market successfully, we must have the awareness of culture differences, acknowledge culture differences and understand different cultures.
Try to know yourself and know them. What’s more, we should respect different behavior of businessmen under different culture background, and then we could reduce unnecessary conflicts resulting from not respecting the opponents.
It is beneficial for both to form an atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce culture differences and turn disadvantages into advantages and benefits. Thus, we could avoid conflicts and obstacles, then to promote communication and harmony in international business negotiation.